Word List: Unit 2 Vocab - Population

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Population Distributionhow population is spread out in an areaEx. The more wealthy people in Tallahassee live in the Northeastern side
Arithmetic DensityThe total number of people divided by the total land area.
Physiological DensityThe number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
Agricultural DensityThe ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.
Arable LandLand suitable for agriculture
Population PyramidsA bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex
Zero Population GrowthA decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
Sex RatioThe number of males per 100 females in the population.
Replacement Rate
(Closest match: Replacement fertility)
The total fertility rate at which women would have only enough children to replace themselves and their partner.
Dependency RatioThe number of nonworking members compared to working members for a given populationEx. Retired elderly and young children
Crude Birth RateAnnual number of live births per 1,000 people in the population of a geographic area at the midpoint of a given year.
Crude Death RateThe number of deaths per year per 1,000 people.
High StationaryBoth birth rates and death rates are high. As a result, population size remains fairly constant but can have major swings with events such as wars or
Early ExpandingThe introduction of modern medicine lowers death rates, especially among children, while birth rates remain high; the result is rapid population growth. Many of the least developed countries today are in this stage.
Late ExpandingBirth rates gradually decrease, usually as a result of improved economic conditions, an increase in womens status, and access to contraception. Population growth continues, but at a lower rate. Most developing countries are in this stage.
Low StationaryBirth and death rates are both low, stabilizing the population. These countries tend to have stronger economies, higher levels of education, better healthcare, a higher proportion of working women, and a fertility rate hovering around two children per woman. Most developed countries are in this stage.
DecliningHypothetical stage in which countries' fertility rates have fallen significantly below replacement level (2 children) and the elderly population is greater than the youthful population.
Epidemiological TransitionDistinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition model.
Natural Increase RateThe percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
Doubling TimeThe number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
Net MigrationThe difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration
Thomas Malthus18th century English intellectual who warned that population growth threatened future generations because, in his view, population growth would always outstrip increases in agricultural production.
Malthusian TheoryTheory that population grows exponentially while food grows linearly; i.e. we're all doomed.
Neo-MalthusiansTheory that agrees with Malthus but also says that we are also depleting natural resources with the growing population and accounts for the massive population growth in least developed countries. And says we need to control population growth but is hard in LDCs because of lack of medical resources. CONTRACEPTION
Esther BoserupDisagreed with Malthus; believed that humans would always find ways to stay ahead of resource decline. Known for her Cornucopian Theory.
Cornucopian TheoryEster Boserup-an idea started by Ester Boserup(1960s) that human ingenuity will result in innovations that make it possible to expand the food supply. People = most valuable resource-the continued progress of material items for man-kind can be met by the continuum of technological advancement
Carrying CapacityLargest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
Population EcologyA sub-field of ecology that deals with the dynamics of species populations and how these populations interact with the environment.
Pro-NatalistA policy encouraging childbirth and often rewarding it with tax cuts or other incentives
Anti-NatalistA policy discouraging childbirth, often fining families over a certain size or offering incentives for not having children
FertilityThe ability to bear children.
MortalityAnother term for death; typically expressed as a rate or percentage.
Gender Wage GapA gap in the salaries earned by men and women for the same work in the same field with all other variables constant
Push FactorsReasons why people emigrate from a country or place.
Pull FactorsA Factor that induces people to move to a new location
MigrationMovement from one location to another; typically from one country to another.
EmigrationLeaving a country, place, or region.
Net MigrationThe difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration
Voluntary MigrationPermanent movement undertaken by choice.Ex. Jobs
Push-Pull TheoryTheory that people emigrate because of push factors (pushing them out of a location) while people immigrate because of pull factors (pulling them into a location).
Ravenstein
(Closest match: Ravenstein's Laws of Migration)
created by english geographer, stated his principles are the basic principles for all migrations1. most migrants go short distances if traveling in the same country. this refers back to distance decay( interactions increase or decrease when the distance between two places decreases or increases)2. If a migrant is going to travel a long distance, it is most likely for a large city )this refers to gravity model because bigger places have a bigger pull)3. rural populations are most likely to move to urban populations for better opportunities especially with jobs 4. individuals are more likely to migrate then families. Easier to pick yourself up and move then with family ( young children and older people)5. every migration to a place causes a counterstream (movement that runs opposite of migration) 6. most migrants are young males (looking for work to support their families )
DispersionThe action or process of distributing things or people over a wide area.
AbsorptionPeople immediately surrounding a rapidly growing town move into it and the gaps they leave are filled by migrants from more distant areas, and so on until the attractive force [pull factors] is spent.
Forced Migrationhuman migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocateEx. A group of people exiled from a country
Chain MigrationA migration process which depends on a small number of pioneers, who make the first moves to set up a new home in a new place. They send information back home, and this encourages further migration from the originating area.
ImmigrationLeaving a place, country, or region.
Remittancesmoney migrants send back to their family and friends in their home countries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer countries
RefugeeA person who is forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion
Internally Displaced PersonSomeone who migrates from one place in a country to another within that same country.

Created by Adam Priebe — 8/30/2017