Word List: Models and Theories

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Gravity ModelA model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service
Von Thunen ModelModel of agricultural land use, an agricultural model that spatially describes agricultural activity in terms of rent. Activities that require intensive cultivation and cannot be transported over great distances pay higher rent to be close to the market. Conversely, activities that are more extensive, with goods that are easy to transport, are located farther from the market where rent is less
Actor-Network Theorya body of thought that emphasizes that humans and nonhumans are linked together in a dynamic set of relations that influence human behavior i.e. Lawn People
Core-Periphery ModelA model that describes the core countries have overall power, and the semi-peripheral and peripheral have lower political, economic, and social power Peripheral and Semi-Peripheral depend on developed core countries for the capital while, Core countries use cheap labor from semi-peripheral and peripheral. All centered around the core.
Demographic Transition ModelIt is used to explain and predict human population growth. It assumes that ALL countries go through four stages of population growth. It measures crude birth rate, crude death rate, and the population of a country.Stage 1-low growth- because of the high death rate even though it has a high birth rate. (all countries have passed this)Stage2- high growth-High birth rate, declining death rate, increasing rate of natural increase (African countries)Stage 3-moderate growth- declining birth rates, declining death rates, decreasing rate of natural increase but still population growth (latin America countries)stage 4- low growth- birth rate equals death rate==usually service based industries, stable rate of growth (Western European Nations)stage 5- declining rate of natural increase
Epidemiologic Transition ModelFocuses on the cause of each step in the Demographic transition modelStage 1-infectious diseases and famine- ((plague in the1300s killed 40 percent of Europeans))Stage 2- epidemic and contagious diseases by overcrowding. Less pandemics because semi-improved health conditions (19th-century cholera)Stage 3- Human created diseases like cardio and cancerstage 4- humans live longer with the same diseases from stage three because better, longer treatments
Zelinsky Model of Migration
(Closest match: Zelinsky Model of Migration Transition)
Based on the demographic transition model !each stage in the DTM has a unique pattern of migration.Stage 1: no migration, just movement that is cyclic or seasonal Stage 2: has the MOST migration because people are moving from rural farms to urban cities in search of work and people will move internationally. Usually people from stage two will move to stage three and four nations Stage 3 and 4: internal migration (within the nation), From cities to suburbs!
Domino TheoryIt was thought if one region became communistic, then the ideal would diffuse to the surrounding countries and then those countries would become communistic and so on. PROMOTED BY THE US
Hearthland TheoryTheory which proposed that whoever controls eastern Europe controls the heartland, who then controls the world island. Ultimately it states that whoever controlled Eurasia would then control its peripheral countries and then the entire world island (Asia, Europe)
Rimland TheoryThe American idea that whoever controlled the "rimland" of the Eurasian continent (Korea, India, Pakistan, Taiwan, etc.) would be able to suppress any attempts by anyone to take over the world again.
Wallerstein World Systems Theory
(Closest match: World Systems Theory (Wallerstein))
The theory that stated if the developed world changed, it would ultimately cause a change in the developing world. (HAS A THREE TIER SYSTEM THAT SHOWS THIS) Core / semi-peripheral/ peripheralCore exploits peripheral by using their labor and natural materialsperipheral are dependent core for MONEYYYY
Rostow Model
(Closest match: Rostow's Stages of Growth (Modernization Model))
The model that shows how each country develops when it goes through the stages (stages of the DTM similar) 1. STAGE ONE-TRADITIONAL SOCIETY-not started development -money is focused on military and religion -subsistence (feed your own family) agriculture 2. STAGE TWO-PRECONDITIONS FOR TAKEOFF-external influences start up some economic activity-country follows educated elitist and invest in technology and infrastructure-making the bones of a country3. STAGE THREE-TAKE OFF-rapid growth in one area BUT other areas remain the same ole same ole4. STAGE FOUR-DRIVE TO MATURITY -workers are skilled and educated-economic activities spread to all sectors of industry and market 5. STAGE FIVE-MASS CONSUMPTION -economic shift from industry to services
Location Interdependence Theory
(Closest match: Location Interdependence Theory (Hotelling))
PROFIT MAXIMIZATION THEORY -Best location was next to competitors or IN THE MIDDLE OF THE MARKET because it draws a larger amount of customers in because customers will go to the closest market possible
Weber Model of Industrial Location (Least Cost Theory)FOCUSED ON PRODUCTION PRICE MINIMIZATION -Model that showed where industries should locate their factories relative to the market or source of raw materials.-three parts that affect where it should locate 1. labor 2. transportation 3. agglomeration1. labor-locate where labor is the cheapest 2. bulkgaining industries should locate closer to the market because the heaviest material will be at the end of production.......bulk reducing industries locate near the raw material because it loses weight as production goes on3. agglomeration helps by having similar industries to share similar equipment, talent, and workers
Bid-Rent Theory
(Closest match: Bid-Rent Theory (Land Rent))
-BIG BUSINESSES (RETAIL) WILL SPEND LOTS OF MONEEEY TO GET THE BEST SPOT NEAR THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT.-manufacturing doesn't need to be close to CBD so they will pay cheaper prices of land farther away from CBD-suburbs pay the cheapest price because they are farthest away from CBD
Borchert's Model of Urban EvolutionPredict the growth and evolution of cities based on innovative ideas around five phases of transportation STAGE 1:sailboats and wagons! main way of transportation from 1790-1830STAGE 2: iron horse transportation 1830-1870 STAGE 3: steel horse transportation 1870-1920 STAGE 4: auto and air 1920-1970(planes, cars)STAGE 5: high technology (jets, supercars, rockets)
Christaller's Central Place Theory
(Closest match: Central Place Theory (Christaller))
Explained the patterns of urban land use!!-CENTRAL PLACES PROVIDED FOR PEOPLE IN THE SURROUNDING RURAL AREA-THRESHOLD is the minimum amount of people needed to exist in that area-range is the maximum distance a person will travel to go to the business-more unique a business is, the higher the threshold and range-have a hierarchy of village, town , city and central place (hence the dots within the hexagons)
Concentric Model
(Closest match: Concentric Model visual)
rings grow out from central business district
Hoyt Sector Model
(Closest match: Sector Model (Hoyt))
City grows out from the central business district in wedges. Usually due to transportation advances-middle class around the high end people-low class people around the manufacturing and industry sector
Peripheral Modelcentral business district is surrounds by suburbs and businesses all tied together by a beltway that surrounds the city, suburbs, and businesses.beltway will lead out to a commerical strip and edge cities
Multiple-Nuclei ModelThe central business district is not the only focal point that people will surround around. There will be other multiple nodes like airports and universities.-people will move towards some nodes while avoiding others
Urban Realms Modelhow a metropolis is spread out, realms link together and surround the central city which forms this gigantic metropolis -each realm is a seperate political, social, and economic entity linked together
Latin American Cities ModelThe center is the central business districtthe spine that comes off the central business district is for the wealthy, usually contains commercial residentials. Zone of maturity is the surrounding part of the central business district that has "matured" meaning all the infrastructure is complete and is well functioning. Zone of Situ accretion is the middle between the zone of maturity and the squatter settlements. It isn't really poor, but it's not fully developed. Zone of peripheral squatter settlements is the outermost ring farthest away from the central business district. It usually has little to no infrastructure and is a very poor region consisting of squatter homes
SE Asian Cities ModelThis model lacks a central business district, but it does have a port that shares many characteristics of a central business district. Zones surrounding the port are western commercial zone, government zone, alien commercial zone, and high-class zones. Mainly in the most developed parts of the city. Then there are squatter areas and suburbs on the next to last ring of the model, and finally on the outer level gardening zone (because land it cheapest away from port) Some industries are building on the very peripheral of the city
African Cities ModelContains three main central business districts that cluster in the middle of the city : traditional-single story buildings with traditional arch, colonial-vertical development, and market-open air, informal. Lack a lot of infrastructures so there are few roads but the main one does go through the three CBDs. Ethnic and mixed neighborhoods surround three CBDs which are then the squatter settlements are the informal townships.
Thomas Malthus' Modelpopulation growth threatened future generations because, in his Malthus' view, population growth would always outstrip increases in agricultural production.
Cornucopian TheoryEster Boserup-an idea started by Ester Boserup(1960s) that human ingenuity will result in innovations that make it possible to expand the food supply. People = most valuable resource-the continued progress of material items for man-kind can be met by the continuum of technological advancement
Ratzel's Organic TheoryFriedrich Ratzel-theory of environment; that people and the environment have a fundamental organic interaction on a constant basis-explained importance between sea and land powers
Renfrew Language TheoryColin Renfrew-The main strength of the farming hypothesis lies in its linking of the spread of Indo-European languages with an archeologically known event (the spread of farming) that is often assumed as involving significant population shifts-sought to explain how languages (specifically the first or initial ones were spread {relating to the P.I.E. and P.P.I.E.})
Weber's Location TheoryAlfred Weber- explains the locational pattern of the industry at a macro-scale. and emphasizes minimum transport, capital, and labor cost-predicts future patterns of industry
Wegener's Plate tectonics TheoryAlfred Wegener-describes the large-scale motions of Earth's lithosphere. The model builds on the concepts of continental drift, which states the the world's continents were first fused all together then slowly broke apart-large movement in the scientific community
Organic TheoryThe view that states resemble biological organisms with life cycles that include stages of youth, maturity, and old age.
Dependency theoryLDC's are poor because they allow themselves to be exploited by the MDC's through international trade and investment
Conquest TheoryTheory that the Proto-Indo-European language spread via warriors who conquered parts of Asia and Europe
Agriculture TheoryWith increased food supply and increased population, speakers from the hearth of the Indo-European language migrated into Europe
Assimilation modelmodel that helps to explain ethnic interaction-melting pot society
Pluralism modelmodel that helps to explain ethnic interaction-resists assimilation-tossed salad metaphor-ethnic enclaves
Sea Power TheoryMahan; late 1800s; argued that control of the sea lanes would lead to national strength.
Push-Pull TheoryTheory that people emigrate because of push factors (pushing them out of a location) while people immigrate because of pull factors (pulling them into a location).

Created by Adam Priebe — 8/30/2017